Saturday, January 7, 2017

1097 Battle of Mount Gvozd & Serb Uprising 1848-49

:::: Gvozd-hegy csata 1097+Torony ::::
The Battle of Gvozd Mountain
took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary. It was a decisive Hungarian victory and resulted in the death of Petar Svačić. After his death Croatia formed a personal union with Kingdom of Hungary that lasted until 1918.


Gvozd is a municipality 
Its seat is located in Vrginmost (Vrgin Most)
which was named Gvozd between 1996 and 2012, 
when it was renamed amid political controversy.
:::: Spomenik na Petrovoj gori ::::
Tower (English) = Turm (German)
Toranj (Serbo-Croatian)
Torony (Hungarian)

Torontál 1910
199.750  Serben
165.779  Deutsche
128.405  Ungarn
 86.937   Rumänen
 16.143   Slowaken
   4.203   Kroaten
 13.934   Bulgaren+Roma


The Serb Uprising of 1848-49
took place in what is today Vojvodina, Serbia
During the Hungarian Revolution, Hungarians achieved significant military successes, but were defeated after Russian intervention. Serbs led fierce battles against the Hungarians, with the help of volunteers from the Principality of Serbia. The outcome of the uprising was the establishment of Serbian Vojvodina (then Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar), a special autonomous region under the Austrian crown. However, the Voivodeship failed certain expectations that Serbian patriots had expressed at the May Assembly (1848). Serbs did not constitute an absolute majority of the population, while the administration was largely in the hands of German officials and officers. The Voivodeship was abolished in 1860, however, some rights were kept by the Serb community. The Serbian Patriarchate was renewed, while the uprising had increased national awareness of the Serb people north of the Sava and Danube in the struggle for freedom.



"When seeking the origins of World War I, the chain of events in the late nineteenth century that led to the breakdown of relations between Austria-Hungary and Serbia and facilitated the rise of an aggressive Serbian nationalism needs to be understood. This book focuses on the hitherto unexplored Hungarian influence on the Habsburg Monarchy's policy toward Serbia after the 1867 Ausgleich, and it argues that this early period was critical in shaping policy after 1871, down to the imposition on Serbia in 1881 of a system of economic and political control. The Ausgleich, the Austro-Hungarian compromise that reconstituted the Empire as a dual monarchy, gave Hungary a limited voice in foreign affairs; and it was at the request of the Hungarian premier, Count Gyula Andrassy, that the young politician Benjamin Kallay was appointed representative at Belgrade in 1868. Both men were obsessed with the threat posed by Russia and particularly concerned that Serbia might be used as a stalking horse for Russian influence among the Monarchy's South Slavs. They pursued a shadow policy designed to draw Serbia firmly into the Monarchy's sphere of influence, which contradicted that of the foreign minister, Count Beust, and resulted in a serious deterioration in relations with Serbia by 1871. After 1871 Andrassy, as foreign minister, laid the foundations for a more explicit control of Serbia; Kallay, as a senior diplomat, negotiated the treaties that, by 1881, locked Serbia into satellite status for a generation.Through detailed archival research in multiple languages and a painstaking reconstruction of diplomatic events, Armour illuminates a crucial period in Central European history, showing how the origins of a war that claimed millions of lives can be traced to political maneuverings almost fifty years before."~  
Jean-Michel Jarre
& Hans Zimmer

:::: States Of Consciousness ::::
Graham Hancock


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