Sunday, January 8, 2017

Venice, Austria, & The Turks in the 17th century

"Kennth M. Setton provides a brief survey of the Thirty Years' Was as part of the background to Venetian relations with the Ottoman Empire. Having lost the island of Crete to the Turks in the long war of 1645-1669, Venice renewed her warfare with the Porte in 1684, this time as the ally of Austria after the Turkish failure to take Vienna the preceding year. The Venetians now conquered the Peloponnesus (the "Morea"), and occupied Athens, with the disastrous result that the Parthenon was destroyed, a tragedy which receives much attention in this book. This volume is to some exrtent a continuation of the author's highly praised work on "The Papacy and the Levant" (also published by the American Philosophical Society), which covers in four volumes the period from the Fourth Crusade (1204) to the battle of Lepanto (1571), and goes somewhat beyond."~

The Holy League 
LatinLiga Sancta 
ItalianLega Santa
SpanishLiga Santa 
of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included almost all the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean. It was intended to break the Ottoman Turks' control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and was formally concluded on 25 May 1571. Its members were:

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The Uprising in Banat was a rebellion organized and led by Serbian Orthodox bishop Teodor of Vršac and Sava Temišvarac against the Ottomans in the Eyalet of Temeşvar. The uprising broke out in 1594, in the initial stage of the Long Turkish War, and was fought by local Serbs, numbering some 5,000, who managed to quickly take over several towns in the region before being crushed by the Ottoman army. The relics of Saint Sava were burnt by the Ottomans as a retaliation. Although short-lived, it inspired future rebellions.

With the outbreak of the Long War, Clement VIII sent missions to Emperor Rudolf IIPhillip II of Spain, and other princes. At the beginning of 1594, he sent clergyman Aleksandar Komulović of Nona to central and eastern Europe with the purpose to persuade the rulers of TransylvaniaMoldaviaWallachia and Muscovy to join an alliance against the Ottomans. Komulović also tried to enlist the Zaporizhian Cossacks, who were important as frequent raiders of Ottoman territory. Komulović was to appeal to the Serbs about liberation from the Ottomans. Clement VIII subsidized the Habsburgs with 600,000 scudi in 1594–95. Clement VIII appealed to Spain and Venice in vain. He also hoped that the Swedish king Sigismund II would fight the Ottomans in his role as king of Poland. In 1597, Clement VIII sent a force under his nephew to Hungary. He did it again in 1598.
Clement VIII
chose not to support the
Facilitated by the Pope, a treaty of alliance was signed in Prague by Emperor Rudolf II and Sigismund Báthory of Transylvania in 1595. Aron Vodă of Moldavia and Michael the Brave of Wallachia joined the alliance later that year. Clement VIII himself lent the Emperor valuable assistance in men and money.
The burning of Saint Sava's remains
after the Banat Uprising provoked Serbs
in other regions to revolt against the Ottomans
The Serb Uprising of 1596–97 was a rebellion organized by Serbian Patriarch Jovan Kantul (s. 1592–1614) and led by Grdan, the vojvoda ("duke") of Nikšić against the Ottomans in the Sanjak of Herzegovina and Montenegro Vilayet, during the Long Turkish War (1593–1606). The uprising broke out in the aftermath of the failed Banat Uprising in 1594 and the burning of Saint Sava's relics on April 27, 1595; it included the tribes of BjelopavlićiDrobnjaci, Nikšić and Piva. The rebels, defeated at the field of Gacko (Gatačko Polje) in 1597, were forced to capitulate due to a lack of foreign support.
The Serbian Revolution was the national uprising and constitutional change in Serbia that took place between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory evolved from an Ottoman province into a rebel territory, a constitutional monarchy and a modern Serbia. The first part of the period, from 1804 to 1815, was marked by a violent struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire with two armed uprisings taking place, ending with a ceasefire. The later period (1815–1835) witnessed a peaceful consolidation of political power of the increasingly autonomous Serbia, culminating in the recognition of the right to hereditary rule by Serbian princes in 1830 and 1833 and the territorial expansion of the young monarchy. The adoption of the first written Constitution in 1835 abolished feudalism and serfdom, and made the country suzerain. The term Serbian Revolution was coined by a German academic historiographer, Leopold von Ranke, in his book Die Serbische Revolution, published in 1829. These events marked the foundation of modern Serbia.
The period is further divided as follows:
The Proclamation (1809) by Karađorđe in the capital Belgrade probably represented the apex of the first phase. It called for national unity, drawing on Serbian history to demand the freedom of religion and formal, written rule of law, both of which the Ottoman Empire had failed to provide. It also called on Serbs to stop paying taxes to the Porte, deemed unfair as based on religious affiliation. Apart from dispensing with poll tax on non-Muslims (jizya), the revolutionaries also abolished all feudal obligations in 1806, only 15 years after the French revolution, peasant and serf emancipation thus representing a major social break with the past. The rule of Miloš Obrenović consolidated the achievements of the Uprisings, leading to the proclamation of the first constitution in the Balkans and the establishment of the oldest Balkan institution of higher learning still in existence, the Great Academy of Belgrade (1808). In 1830 and again in 1833, Serbia was recognized as an autonomous principality, with hereditary princes paying annual tribute to the Porte. Finally, de facto independence came in 1868, with the withdrawal of Ottoman garrisons from the principality; de jure independence was formally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878.

Spectacular collision of suns

will create new star in

night sky

in 2022

Astronomers use 
Astronomical Units (AU) 
to describe SSD (Solar System Distances) 
& to prominent SSO (Solar System Objects). 
The following article answers the question: 
What is an Astronomical Unit? 
The Greatest Scientific Fraud
Of All Time -- Part XI
4th January 2017
by Francis Menton


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